Association between sarcopenia and hypertension, ways of mutual influence on clinical course in the elderly (literature review)
Population aging remains one of the most important demographic processes in recent decades. Representatives of the older age groups make up a significant proportion of various patient profiles. Among the specific features of these patients there is not only comorbidity, but also age-related changes in the peripheral tissues. Although formally they remain physiological, such changes may significantly burden the patient's condition. One of the processes accompanying aging is the loss of muscle tissue – sarcopenia. At the same time, hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease, which develops in people over 40 years of age, and among the elderly its prevalence is 30–40%. The development of hypertension-associated complications, comorbidity in the elderly is directly related to disability, loss of self-care capacities and loss of physical independence. Reducing physical activity may contribute to the progression of muscle tissue involution, which negatively affects the quality of life, as well as life span prognosis. Taking into account the above mentioned facts, the review deals with the pathogenetic mechanisms of communication of arterial hypertension and sarcopenia, their mutual influence on the clinical course in people of the older age groups. The emphasis lies on the negative effects of potentiating synergism of sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, disorders of the hemostasis system and autonomic regulation on the development of hemodynamic disorders associated with hypertension, especially in the elderly. This article is of interest to a wide range of internists, which care for the older patient groups.
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