Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor of falls of elderly people
Among elderly people, falls are a serious problem associated with a deterioration in the quality of life, fractures and increased mortality. Today, on the basis of scientific literature, a connection can be clearly traced between the deficiency of serum vitamin D and muscle weakness, cognitive impairment, that is, factors that lead to poorer balance and increase the risk of falling. The review analyzes the features of the effect of vitamin D on the structure and function of muscles, as well as evaluates the effectiveness of calcium and vitamin D intake on muscle strength and reduces the risk of falls in the elderly. Based on the literature data, the role of vitamin D in maintaining normal brain function has been proved, and the incidence of vitamin D deficiency in elderly patients with cognitive impairment has been estimated. It is concluded that data on the therapeutic efficacy of supplemental vitamin D supplementation in cognitive impairment are ambiguous. Issues requiring resolution are noted. First of all, the establishment of threshold values for vitamin D in serum, the need for additional studies to determine the best treatment methods, including the dose of vitamin D and the duration of treatment. The most controversial issue is the use of high doses of vitamin D. Based on the analysis, most researchers consider it unreasonable to use high doses of vitamin D in preventing the frequency and risk of falls, and in general, their negative impact on human health. There is evidence that vitamin D is most effective in combination with calcium. However, despite the growing number of scientific studies on the association of vitamin D with falls, the role and importance of vitamin D in this process has not been conclusively established.
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