Epidemiology and risk factors of lower limb fractures (literature review)


  • N.V. Grygorieva State Institution “D.F. Chebotarev Institute of Gerontology of the NAMS Ukraine”, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • R.O. Vlasenko M.I. Pirogov Vinnytsia National Medical University, Vinnytsia, Ukraine




risk factors, lower limb fracture, femoral fracture, tibial fracture, foot fracture, bone mineral density


The article presents current data about the risk factors of main lower limb fractures (LLFs) of different localization (femur, tibia and foot). It has been shown that the most studies examine epidemiology and risk factors for hip fractures, but information about the risk factors for other LLFs is insufficient and controversial. It has been demonstrated that in addition to factors of age and sex, the road traffic accidents, sports, inadequate physical activity, injuries, falls and previous fractures play the important role in the development of LLFs. Also some diseases (systemic osteoporosis, large joints osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia, epilepsy, alcoholism, parkinsonism, cancer, obesity and cataract) can influence the LLFs risk. Administration of some drugs, in particular, hypnotic and sedative, as well as antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs and glucocorticoids, is the additional risk factor for LLFs. Almost all types of fractures in women are associated with low bone mineral density, which is more defined at femoral neck than at spine or peripheral skeleton, but part of fractures associated with osteoporosis is small and ranges from 10 to 44 %. The assessment of risk factors should necessarily be carried out in routine clinical practice in patients with LLFs, since it affects not only their incidence, but also the prognosis of treatment of these patients.


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How to Cite

Grygorieva, N., & Vlasenko, R. (2021). Epidemiology and risk factors of lower limb fractures (literature review). PAIN, JOINTS, SPINE, 7(3), 127–138. https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-1507.7.3.2017.116868




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