Bronchial asthma as a pathophysiological factor of sarcopenia onset
Keywords:bronchial asthma, dysfunction of respiratory muscles, skeletal muscles, sarcopenia
Background. Under bronchial obstruction caused by the bronchial asthma (BA), one may observe a change in blood gas factor, development of oxidative stress, electrolyte and metabolic imbalance, which lead to lung emphysema and chronic respiratory failure formation. This was accompanied by changes in respiratory muscles, particularly in the diaphragm, which are characterized by an advanced atrophy and a further loss of muscle strength and mass. The question arises to which extent BA affects the state of skeletal muscles as they determine tolerance for physical activity and quality of life in these patients. The purpose was to determine functional capacity of skeletal muscles and frequency of sarcopenia in patients with BA. Materials and methods. Seventy people aged 47.82 ± 13.54 years were examined. The first group included 35 persons who had BA, while the second group consisted of 35 healthy persons. An 8-step test for walking speed was applied to assess the functional capacity of skeletal muscles. The skeletal muscle power was evaluated with the help of spring hand dynamometer. Circumference of the tibia determined the criterion of satisfactory muscle mass. Quality of life was assessed by means of O.S. Chaban’s questionnaire. Results. When evaluating skeletal muscle power, wrist dynamometry was reduced by 22 % in case of severe BA compared to moderate BA, the corresponding index made 29 % when compared to the wrist dynamometry of healthy persons. An inverse correlation was found between BA severity and wrist strength in females (r = –0.65) and males (r = –0.3); walking speed in females (r = –0.72) and males (r = –0.6); circumference of the tibia in females (r = –0.17) and males (r = –0.28). A decrease in skeletal muscle power and tolerance for physical activity were associated with the loss of muscle component among 80 % of patients with BA. Conclusions. Sarcopenia was diagnosed in 5.71 % of persons from the control group, and in 25.71 % of patients with BA. Depending on BA severity and the age of patients, sarcopenia was detected in 9.5 % of patients who had moderate BA, and in 35.71 % of patients with severe BA; in 10.53 % of persons under the age of 45, and in 31.25 % of those over 45.
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