Vitamin D status in patients with nontraumatic transient loss of consciousness (literature review)


  • T.A. Kovalchuk PhD, Associate Professor at the Department of Pediatrics 2, State Institution of Higher Education “I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University”, Ternopil, 46001, Ukraine
  • O.R. Boyarchuk MD, PhD, Professor, Head of the Department of pediatric diseases and pediatric surgery, State Institution of Higher Education “I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University”, Ternopil, 46001, Ukraine



nontraumatic transient loss of consciousness, reflex syncope, orthostatic hypotension, cardiogenic syncope, epilepsy, psychogenic syncope, vitamin D, review


The article presents an analysis of the recent scientific findings on vitamin D status in patients with different etiopathogene­tic varieties of nontraumatic transient loss of consciousness. The results of recent researches suggest that vitamin D may play an indirect and, in some cases, direct role in the pathogenesis of nontraumatic transient loss of consciousness. Data on the cause-effect relationship between a low vitamin D status and syncope are mixed, controversial and ambiguous, which is largely due to the use of different doses of vitamin D, its initial concentration, duration of therapy, genetic diffe­rences in the vitamin D receptors, different age groups, physical parameters of the surveyed, medications, peculiarities of nutrition with special supplements, differences in physical activity, peculiarities of the climate and season, and others. Until now there is no convincing evidence of the benefits of using vitamin D in the treatment and prevention of syncope. Most studies are observational and relate mainly to adult populations. Therefore, randomized controlled studies focused on children may be a promising field of research.


Download data is not yet available.


Saggese G, Vierucci F, Prodam F, et al. Vitamin D in pediatric age: consensus of the Italian Pediatric Society and the Italian Society of Preventive and Social Pediatrics, jointly with the Italian Federation of Pediatricians. Ital J Pediatr. 2018;44(1):51.

Esposito S, Lelii M. Vitamin D and respiratory tract infections in childhood. BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Oct 28;15:487.

Muehleisen B, Gallo RL. Vitamin D in allergic disease: shedding light on a complex problem. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Feb;131(2):324-9.

Cadario F, Prodam F, Savastio S, et al. Vitamin D status and type 1 diabetes in children: evaluation according to latitude and skin color. Minerva Pediatr. 2015 Jun;67(3):263-7.

Erdem T, Ferat Ç, Nurdan YA, et al. Vitamin and mineral deficiency in children newly diagnosed with celiac disease. Turk J Med Sci. 2015;45(4):833-6.

Jamka M, Woźniewicz M, Walkowiak J, Bogdański P, Jeszka J, Stelmach-Mardas M. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on select-ed inflammatory biomarkers in obese and overweight subjects: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Eur J Nutr. 2016 Sep;55(6):2163-76.

Saad K., Abdel-Rahman A.A., Elserogy Y.M., et al. Vitamin D status in autism spectrum disorders and the efficacy of vitamin D sup-plementation in autistic children. Nutr Neurosci. 2016 Oct;19(8):346-351.

Autier P, Boniol M, Pizot C, Mullie P. Vitamin D status and ill health: a systematic review. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 Jan;2(1):76-89.

Autier P, Mullie P, Macacu A, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on non-skeletal disorders: a systematic review of meta-analyses and randomised trials. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017 Dec;5(12):986-1004.

Rusinska A, Płudowski P, Walczak M, et al. Vitamin D Supplementation Guidelines for General Population and Groups at Risk of Vit-amin D Deficiency in Poland. Bol', sustavy, pozvonočnik. 2019;9(1):2-27. (in Ukrainian).

Butler IJ, Lankford JE, Hashmi SS, Numan MT. Biogenic amine metabolism in juvenile neurocardiogenic syncope with dysautonomia. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2014 Apr;1(4):251-7.

Ghaznain M, Donnelly TM, Halpenny L. Tilt Table Test Outcome in the Diagnosis and Prevalence of Syncope in Patients with Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 Deficiency. Age and Ageing. 2017 Sep;46(Suppl 3):iii13-iii59.

Arici B, Maeder M, Schuetz P, Muelle B, Albrich WC. Potential Role of Biomarkers in the Management of Syncope. International Jour-nal of Clinical Medicine. 2012;3(7A):744-750.

Brignole M, Moya A, de Lange FJ, et al. 2018 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope. Eur Heart J. 2018 Jun 1;39(21):1883-1948.

Wadhwania R. Is Vitamin D Deficiency Implicated in Autonomic Dysfunction? J Pediatr Neurosci. 2017 Apr-Jun;12(2):119-123.

DeLuca GC, Kimball SM, Kolasinski J, Ramagopalan SV, Ebers GC. Review: The role of vitamin D in nervous system health and dis-ease. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2013 Aug;39(5):458-84.

Santillan GE, Vazquez G, Boland R. Activation of a b-adrenergic-sensitive signal transduction pathway by the secosteroid hormone 1,25-oh2 vitamin D3 in chick heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1999 May;31(5):1095-104.

Ashangari C, Suleman A. Vitamin D Deficiency Study in Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quali-ty and Outcomes. 2015;8(Suppl 2):A121.

Chaudhari SA, Sacerdote A, Bahtiyar G. 1-a hydroxylation defect in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: Remission with calcitriol supplementation. BMJ Case Rep. 2012 Aug 13;2012. pii: bcr0220125730.

Matter M, El-Sherbiny E, Elmougy A, Abass M, Aldossary S, Ali WA. Myocardial function in Saudi adolescents with Vitamin D defi-ciency: Tissue Doppler imaging study. J Saudi Heart Assoc. 2016 Jan;28(1):22-30.

Ometto F, Stubbs B, Annweiler C, et al. Hypovitaminosis D and orthostatic hypotension: A systematic review and meta analysis. J Hy-pertens. 2016 Jun;34(6):1036-43.

Annweiler C, Schott AM, Rolland Y, Beauchet O. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with orthostatic hypotension in oldest-old women. J Intern Med. 2014 Sep;276(3):285-95.

Witham MD, Price RJ, Struthers AD, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on orthostatic hypotension: data from the vitamin D in isolated systolic hypertension randomized controlled trial. J Hypertens. 2014 Aug;32(8):1693-9; discussion 1699.

Shaltout HA. Abstract P396: Vitamin D Supplementation Improves Cardiovascular Response to Head Up Tilt in Adolescents Suffering from Syncope. Hypertension. 2018 Sep;72(Suppl 1):AP396.

Nigwekar SU, Thadhani R. Vitamin D receptor activation: Cardiovascular and renal implications. Kidney Int Suppl (2011). 2013 Dec;3(5):427-430.

McCarroll KG, Robinson DJ, Coughlan A, et al. Vitamin D and orthostatic hypotension. Age and Ageing. 2012;41(6):810-813.

Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jul 19;357(3):266-81.

Al Mheid I, Patel RS, Tangpricha V, Quyyumi AA. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: is the evidence solid? Eur Heart J. 2013 Dec;34(48):3691-8.

O'Connell TD, Berry JE, Jarvis AK, Somerman MJ, Simpson RU. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulation of cardiac myocyte prolifera-tion and hypertrophy. Am J Physiol. 1997 Apr;272(4 Pt 2):H1751-8.

Patel R, Rizvi AA. Vitamin D deficiency in patients with congestive heart failure: mechanisms, manifestations, and management. South Med J. 2011 May;104(5):325-30.

Pandit A, Mookadam F, Boddu S, et al. Vitamin D levels and left ventricular diastolic function. Open Heart. 2014 Feb 15;1(1):e000011.

Savica V, Bellinghieri G, Monardo P, Muraca U, Santoro D. An update on calcium metabolism alterations and cardiovascular risk in pa-tients with chronic kidney disease: questions, myths and facts. J Nephrol. 2013 May-Jun;26(3):456-64.

Santoro D, Lucisano S, Gagliostro G, et al. Vitamin D receptor polymorphism in chronic kidney disease patients with complicated cardi-ovascular disease. J Ren Nutr. 2015 Mar;25(2):187-93.

Demir M, Uyan U, Melek M. The effects of vitamin D deficiency on atrial fibrillation. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2014 Jan;20(1):98-103.

Chen WR, Liu ZY, Shi Y, et al. Relation of low vitamin D to nonvalvular persistent atrial fibrillation in Chinese patients. Ann Noninva-sive Electrocardiol. 2014 Mar;19(2):166-73.

Hanafy DA, Chang SL, Lu YY, et al. Electromechanical effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d with antiatrial fibrillation activities. J Cardio-vasc Electrophysiol. 2014 Mar;25(3):317-23.

Rienstra M, Cheng S, Larson MG, et al. Vitamin D status is not related to development of atrial fibrillation in the community. Am Heart J. 2011 Sep;162(3):538-41.

Cerit L, Оzcem B, Cerit Z, Duygu H. Preventive Effect of Preoperative Vitamin D Supplementation on Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation. Braz J Cardiovasc Surg. 2018 Jul-Aug;33(4):347-352.

Nalbant A, Vatan MB, Varım P, Varım C, Kaya T, Tamer A. Does Vitamin D Deficiency Effect Heart Rate Variability in Low Cardio-vascular Risk Population? Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2017 Mar 22;5(2):197-200.

Mangat JS, Till J, Bridges N. Hypocalcaemia mimicking long QT syndrome: case report. Eur J Pediatr. 2008 Feb;167(2):233-5.

Fernando MP, Perera PJ, Muthukumarana OJ, Uyangoda K. Hypocalcaemia leading to supra ventricular tachycardia in a three-month old Sri Lankan infant with vitamin D deficient rickets: a case report. Ceylon Med J. 2017 Dec 26;62(4):242-43.

Carbone F, Mach F, Vuilleumier N, Montecucco F. Potential pathophysiological role for the vitamin D deficiency in essential hyperten-sion. World J Cardiol. 2014 May 26;6(5):260-76.

Holló A, Clemens Z, Lakatos P. Epilepsy and vitamin D. Int J Neurosci. 2014 Jun;124(6):387-93.

Samaniego EA, Sheth RD. Bone consequences of epilepsy and antiepileptic medications. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2007 Dec;14(4):196-200.

Sonmez FM, Donmez A, Namuslu M, Canbal M, Orun E. Vitamin D Deficiency in Children With Newly Diagnosed Idiopathic Epilep-sy. J Child Neurol. 2015 Oct;30(11):1428-32.

Aksoy A, Sönmez FM, Deger O, Hosver I, Karagüzel G. The effects of antiepileptic drugs on the relationships between leptin levels and bone turnover in prepubertal children with epilepsy. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2011;24(9-10):703-8.

Borusiak P, Langer T, Heruth M, Karenfort M, Bettendorf U, Jenke AC. Antiepileptic drugs and bone metabolism in children: data from 128 patients. J Child Neurol. 2013 Feb;28(2):176-83.

Fong CY, Riney CJ. Vitamin D deficiency among children with epilepsy in South Queensland. J Child Neurol. 2014 Mar;29(3):368-73.

Khalifah RA, Hudairi A, Homyani DA, Hamad MH, Bashiri FA. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent vitamin D deficiency for chil-dren with epilepsy Randomized pragmatictrial protocol. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Oct;97(40):e12734.

Christiansen C, Rodbro P, Sjo O. Anticonvulsant action” of vitamin D in epileptic patients? A controlled pilot study. Br Med J. 1974 May 4;2(5913):258-9.

Holló A, Clemens Z, Kamondi A, Lakatos P, Szűcs A. Correction of vitamin D deficiency improves seizure control in epilepsy: a pilot study. Epilepsy Behav. 2012 May;24(1):131-3.

Mikati MA, Dib L, Yamout B, Sawaya R, Rahi AC, Fuleihan Gel-H. Two randomized vitamin D trials in ambulatory patients on anti-convulsants: impact on bone. Neurology. 2006 Dec 12;67(11):2005-14.

Rajesh A, Mukhtyar B. Peer review and authorizationin EPEN meetingdate. In: Network EPE. 2015.

Gniatkowska-Nowakowska A. Fractures in epilepsy children. Seizure. 2010 Jul;19(6):324-5.

Tekgul H, Dizdarer G, Demir N, Ozturk C, Tutuncuoglu S. Antiepileptic drug-induced osteopenia in ambulatory epileptic children receiv-ing a standard vitamin D3 supplement. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jun;18(6):585-8.

Harris HW. Vitamin D deficiency and psychiatric illness. Current Psychiatry. 2013;12(4):18-27.




How to Cite

Kovalchuk, T., & Boyarchuk, O. (2021). Vitamin D status in patients with nontraumatic transient loss of consciousness (literature review). PAIN, JOINTS, SPINE, 9(3), 178–183.