Modern view of osteoporosis attending neurological disorders (Literature review)


  • M.A. Bystrytska PhD, MD, Department of Clinical Physiology & Pathology of Locomotor Apparatus, State Institution “D.F. Chebotarev Institute of Gerontology of the NAMS of Ukraine”, Vyshgorodska st., 67, Kyiv, 04114, Ukraine; e-mail:; phone +38 (067) 418-55-73



osteoporosis, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, review


The article presents the current literature data of the nervous system’s pathology influence on bone metabolism. The nervous system diseases proven to affect bone and increase the risk of osteoporosis and fractures are epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease and muscular dystrophy. Study of the mechanisms of osteoporosis formation in this category of patients is ongoing, the new views of the increased fracture risk causes appear, and therefore new trends in prevention and treatment are required.


Download data is not yet available.


Povoroznyuk V, Grigoryeva NV. Menopause and musculoskeletal system. Кyiv: Express; 2004. 512 p.

Polishchuk ON, Korzh VY, Fischenko K, editors. Damage to the spine and spinal cord. Ukraine: Book plus; 2001. 388 p.

Karaban IM, editor. Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson's disease. Kiev: Neuronyus Medical Journal LLC; 2017. 84 p.

Abou-Raya S, Helmii M, Abou-Raya A. Bone and mineral metabolism in older adults with Parkinson's disease. Age and Ageing. Nov;38(6):675-80.

Ahnstedt H, McCullough LD, Cipolla MJ. The Importance of Considering Sex Differences in Translational Stroke Research. Transl Stroke Res. 2016 Aug;7(4):261-273.

Al Anouti F., Taha Z., Shamim S., Khalaf K., Al Kaabi L., Alsafar H. An insight into the paradigms of osteoporosis, from genetics to biomechanics. Bone reports, 2019;11:100216.

Akkawi I, Zmerly H. Osteoporosis, Current Concepts. Joints. 2018 Jun;6(2):122-127.

Allen N, Schwarzel A, Canning C. Recurrent falls in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review. Parkinsons Dis. 2013;2013:906274.

Altintaş A, Saruhan-Direskeneli G, Benbir G, Demir M, Purisa S. The role of osteopontin: a shared pathway in the pathogenesis of mul-tiple sclerosis and osteoporosis? J Neurol Sci. 2009 Jan 15;276(1-2):41-44.

Battaglino R, Lazzari A, Garshick E, Morse L. Spinal cord injury-induced osteoporosis: pathogenesis and emerging therapies. Curr Oste-oporos Rep. 2012;10(4):278-285. doi: 10.1007/s11914-012-0117-0.

Bauman W, Cardozo C. Osteoporosis in individuals with spinal cord injury. PMR. 2015 Feb;7(2):188-201; quiz 201.

Bauman W, Spungen A, Morrison N, Zhang RL, Schwartz E. Effect of a vitamin D analog on leg bone mineral density in patients with chronic spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res. 2005;42(5):625-634.

Beaupre GS, Lew HL. Bone-density changes after stroke. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006 May;85(5):464-472.

Bikle D. Integrins, insulin like growth factors, and the skeletal response to load. Osteoporos Int. 2008;19(9):1237-1246.

Boling EP. Gender and osteoporosis: similarities and sex-specific differences. J Gend Specif Med. 2001;4(2):36-43.

Bonnet N, Pierroz DD, Ferrari SL. Adrenergic control of bone remodeling and its implications for the treatment of osteoporosis. J Mus-culoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2008;8(2):94-104.

Colangelo L., Biamonte F., Pepe J., Cipriani C., Minisola, S. Understanding and managing secondary osteoporosis. Expert Rev Endo-crinol Metab. 2019 Mar;14(2):111-122.

Carbone L, Chin AS, Lee TA, et al. The association of anticonvulsant use with fractures in spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2013; 92(12):1037-1046.

Carda S, Cisari C, Invernizzi M, Bevilacqua M. Osteoporosis after Stroke: A Review of the Causes and Potential Treatments. Cerebro-vasc Dis. 2009;28(2):191-200.

Chang K, Hung C, Chen W, Lai MS, Chien KL, Han DS. Effectiveness of bisphosphonate analogues and functional electrical stimulation on attenuating post-injury osteoporosis in spinal cord injury patients – a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013 Nov 22;8(11):e81124.

Charmetant C, Phaner V, Condemine A, Calmels P. Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in spinal cord injury patients: a literature re-view. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2010;53(10):655-668.

Charmetant C, Phaner V, Condemine A, Calmels P. Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in spinal cord injury patients: a literature re-view. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2010;53: 655-668.

Daniel SK, Lansang MC, Okun MS. Bone mineral density (BMD) in male patients with Parkinson's disease. Int J Neurosci. 2012;122(9):523-527.

De Vries F, Pouwels S, Bracke M, et al. Use of beta-2 agonists and risk of hip/femur fracture: a populationbased case-control study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2007 Jun;16(6):612-9.

Dennison EM, Compston JE, Flahive J, et al. Effect of comorbidities on fracture risk: findings from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Bone. 2012 Jun;50(6):1288-93.

Doherty AL, Battaglino RA, Donovan J, et al. Аdiponectin is a candidate biomarker of lower extremity bone density in men with chronic spinal cord injury. J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Jan;29(1):251-259.

Ducy P, Amling M, Takeda S, et al. Leptin inhibits bone formation through a hypothalamic relay: a central control of bone mass. Cell. 2000;100(2):197-207.

Eser P, Frotzler A, Zehnder Y, et al. Relationship between the duration of paralysis and bone structure: A pQCT study of spinal cord in-jured individuals. Bone. 2004;34(5):869-880.

Faulkner MA, Ryan-Haddad AM, Lenz TL, Degner K. Osteoporosis in long-term care residents with multiple sclerosis. Consult Pharm. 2005 Feb;20(2):128-136.

Forster A, Young J. Incidence and consequences of falls due to stroke: a systematic inquiry. BMJ. 1995;311(6997):83-86.

Gao H, Wei X, Liao J, et al. Lower bone mineral density in patients with parkinson’s disease: a cross-sectional study from Chinese Main-land. Front Aging Neurosci. 2015;7:203.

Gifre L, Vidal J, Carrasco, et al. Risk factors for the development of osteoporosis after spinal cord injury. A 12-month follow-up study. Osteoporosis International. 2015 Sep;26(9):2273-2280.

Girijala RL, Sohrabji F, Bush RL. Sex differences in stroke: Review of current knowledge and evidence. Vasc Med. 2017 Apr;22(2):135-145.

Gupta S, Ahsan I, Mahfooz N, Abdelhamid N, Ramanathan M, Weinstock-Guttman B. Osteoporosis and multiple sclerosis: risk factors, pathophysiology, and therapeutic interventions. CNS Drugs. 2014 Aug;28(8):731-742.

Shuhaibar M, McKenna MJ, Au-Yeong M, Redmond JM. Favorable effect of immunomodulator therapy on bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis. Ir J Med Sci. 2009 Mar;178(1):43-45.

Kalilani L, Asgharnejad M, Palokangas T, Durgin T. Comparing the Incidence of Falls/Fractures in Parkinson’s Disease Patients in the US Population. PLoS One. 2016 Sep 1;11(9):e0161689.

Huo K, Hashim SI, Yonget KL, Su H, Qu QM. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture. World J Exp Med. 2016 Feb 20;6(1):1-8.

Kapral MK, Fang J, Alibhai SM, et al. Risk of fractures after stroke: Results from the Ontario stroke registry. Neurology. 2017;88(1):57-64.

Kistner A, Lhommée E, Krack P. Mechanisms of Body Weight Fluctuations in Parkinson’s Disease. Front Neurol. 2014;5:84.

Knekt P, Kilkkinen A, Rissanen H, Marniemi J, Sääksjärvi K, Heliövaara M. Serum vitamin D and the risk of Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2010;67(7):808-811

Lazoura O, Groumas N, Antoniadou E, et al. Bone mineral density alterations in upper and lower extremities 12 months after stroke measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and DXA. J Clin Densitom. 2008;11(4):511-517.

Lindskov S, Sjöberg K, Hagell P, Westergren A. Weight stability in Parkinson's disease. Nutr Neurosci. 2016;19(1):11-20.

Marks R. Hip fracture epidemiological trends, outcomes, and risk factors, 1970–2009. Int J Gen Med. 2010;3:1-17.

Marrie RA, Cutter G, Tyry T, Vollmer T. A cross-sectional study of bone health in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2009 Oct 27;73(17):1394-1398.

Wei M, Lyu H, Huo K, Su H. Impact of bone fracture on ischemic stroke recovery. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 May 22;19(5). pii: E1533.

Metta V. Sanchez T, Padmakumar C. Osteoporosis: a hidden nonmotor face of parkinson's disease. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2017;134:877-890.

Hearn AP, Silber E. Osteoporosis in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2010;Sep;16(9):1031-1043.

Namba S, Yamaoka-Tojo M, Hashikata T, et al. Long-term warfarin therapy and biomarkers for osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. BBA Clinical. 2015;4:76-80.

Ozturk E, Gundogdu I, Tonuk B, et al. Bone mass and vitamin D levels in Parkinson's disease: is there any difference between genders? J Phys Ther Sci. 2016;28(8):2204-2209.

Pérez Castrillón JL, Cano-del Pozo M, Sanz-Izquierdo S, Velayos-Jiménez J, Dib-Wobakin W. Bone mineral density in patients with multiple sclerosis: the effects of interferon. Rev Neurol. 2003;36(10):901-903.

Raglione L, Sorbi S, Nacmias B. Osteoporosis and Parkinson’s disease. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2011;8(3):16-18.

Sato Y, Maruoka H, Honda Y, et al. Development of osteopenia in the hemiplegic finger in patients with stroke. Eur Neurol. 1996;36:278-283.

Schnitzer TJ, Harvey RL, Nack SH, Supanwanid P, Maskala-Streff L, Roth E. Bone mineral density in patients with stroke: relationship with motor impairment and functional mobility. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2012 Sep-Oct;19(5):436-43.

Sioka C, Kyritsis AP, Fotopoulos A. Multiple sclerosis, osteoporosis, and vitamin D. J Neurol Sci. 2009 Dec 15;287(1-2):1-6.

Steffensen LH, Mellgren SI, Kampman MT. Predictors and prevalence of low bone mineral density in fully ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis. Neurol. 2010 Mar;257(3):410-418.

Tan L, Wang Y, Zhou L, et al. Parkinson’s Disease and Risk of Fracture: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(4):e94379.

Terzi T, Terzi M, Tander B, Cantürk F, Onar M. Changes in bone mineral density and bone metabolism markers in premenopausal wom-en with multiple sclerosis and the relationship to clinical variables. J Clin Neurosci. 2010 Oct;17(10):1260-1264.

Togari A, Arai M. Pharmacological topics of bone metabolism: the physiological function of the sympathetic nervous system in modulat-ing bone resorption. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008;106(4):542-546.

Togari A, Arai M, Kondo H, et al. The neuro-osteogenic network: The sympathetic regulation of bone resorption. Japanese Dental Sci-ence Review. 2012; Aug.48(2) 61-70.

Troy KL, Morse LR. Measurement of bone: diagnosis of SCI-induced osteoporosis and fracture risk prediction. Top Spinal Cord Inj Re-habil. 2015;21(4):267-274.

van den Bos F, Speelman A, Samson M, Munneke M, Bloem BR, Verhaar HJ. Parkinson's disease and osteoporosis. Age Ageing. 2013; 42(2):156-162.

Voaklander DC, Martin W, King-Jesso P, et al. Incidence of hip fracture in Parkinson disease: a population-based study in British Co-lumbia, Canada. Injury Prevention. 2010;16(Suppl 1):A254.

Weinstock-Guttman B, Gallagher E, Baier M, et al. Risk of bone loss in men with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2004 Apr;10(2):170-175.

Zerwekh J, Ruml L, Gottschalk F, Pak C. The effects of twelve weeks of bed rest on bone histology, biochemical markers of bone turno-ver, and calcium homeostasis in eleven normal subjects. J Bone Miner Res. 1998; Oct;13(10):1594-601.




How to Cite

Bystrytska, M. (2021). Modern view of osteoporosis attending neurological disorders (Literature review). PAIN, JOINTS, SPINE, 9(4), 251–256.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>