Ukrainian frax: criteria for diagnostics and treatment of osteoporosis


  • V. Povoroznyuk MD, PhD, Professor, Head of the Department of clinical physiology and pathology of locomotor apparatus, State Institution “D.F. Chebotarev Institute of Gerontology of the NAMS of Ukraine”, Kyiv, Ukraine, e-mail:
  • N. Grygorieva MD, PhD, Professor, Leading Research Fellow at the Department of clinical physiology and pathology of locomotor apparatus, State Institution “D.F. Chebotarev Institute of Gerontology of the NAMS of Ukraine”, Vyshgorodska st., 67, Kyiv, 04114, Ukraine; e-mail:; phone: +38 (067) 445 76 08
  • J.A. Kanis Professor Emeritus, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK
  • H. Johansson University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK
  • E.V. McCloskey University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK



FRAX®, osteoporosis, borderline intervention, treatment, diagnosis, risk of osteoporotic fractures


Background. Nowadays, FRAX® algorithm is an informative method for evaluation of the risk of osteoporotic fractures, implemented in European and American guidelines for osteoporosis management. However, there are differences in “intervention thresholds” for antiosteoporotic treatment, which depend on the country, the model of health care system and the reimbursement for treatment. Ukrainian version of FRAX appeared in Ukraine in 2016, but the thresholds for intervention have not yet been developed. The purpose of the study was to determine the “thresholds” for the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis and for additional diagnostic examination of Ukrainian population using national FRAX model. Materials and methods. 3790 outpatients aged 40–90 years (mean age 61.9 ± 10.0 years) were examined. The development of the “thresholds” for intervention and additional assessment of the bone using dual-energy X-ray densitometry (DXA) based on the methodology adopted by the Natio­nal Osteoporosis Guideline Group in UK, which is further used in European guidelines. Results. There was an increase of the “thre­shold” for pharmacological intervention (“upper threshold”) with age from 6.6 % at the age of 40 to 13 % at the age of 75–85 years. The “lower threshold” (threshold for additional examination) increased significantly from 2.4 % at the age of 40 to 6.9 % in wo­men aged 85 years. The evaluation strategy begins with an analysis of the history of low-traumatic fracture. In its presence, a decision to start antiosteoporotic treatment without DXA should be made. In patients without history of fracture, calculation of fracture risk according to FRAX is required. When the risk exceeds the limit of the “upper threshold” antiosteoporotic treatment without DXA is recommended, when its values below the limit of “lower thre­shold” — additional examination or treatment is not required. In case of intermediate risk of fracture a DXA should be conducted with a reassessment of fracture risk and management tactics. Conclusions. The effectiveness of FRAX principles which uses in European guideline, but with particularities of the epidemiology of osteoporotic fractures in Ukraine, has been proved. Although this approach is cost-effective in other countries, its use in Ukraine may differ and may need to be further explored with an economic assessment of costs and benefits.


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How to Cite

Povoroznyuk, V., Grygorieva, N., Kanis, J., Johansson, H., & McCloskey, E. (2021). Ukrainian frax: criteria for diagnostics and treatment of osteoporosis. PAIN, JOINTS, SPINE, 9(4), 212–221.



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